Which is the magnetic moment?

When we talk about the magnetic moment, we talk about a unit or a vector, which describes magnetic processes. More specifically, it indicates the strength of a magnetic dipole, which represents the relationship between the external magnetic field and the strength of that field itself.

The external magnetic field, together with its flux density, can affect the it and rotate it in the direction of the field. The angle between the direction of the field and the magnetic moment, therefore, influences the energy. This can be observed in classic compasses or electric motors.

How is the magnetic moment created?

Generally there can be two origins for the creation of the magnetic moment. The first one is with an electric and / or circular current with the current density distribution and, on the other one is with particles with their own angular momentum, the so-called spins.

What is the magnetic moment?

A magnetic moment can arise in a closed current path that, as already mentioned at the beginning, depends on the direction of the current. This is used in electrical engineering as a basis for electromagnets, motors or generators.

The same logic applies if everything is transferred to atoms. As we explained earlier, atomic nucleus are surrounded by circles of electron movement. These electrons have the so-called spin, that is, an auto rotation of the electrons. Its circular course around the atom can be equated with the circular current. Each movement is a magnetic dipole moment, which together describes the full magnetic force, that is, the magnetic moment. But its form can also be canceled. If the atoms have an even number of electrons, it will be canceled alone.

Described by a formula, as follows: = ⋅ . m represents the magnetic moment, I for the current and A for the area of ​​the circle.

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