Single-phase motors are rotary machines that convert electrical energy into mechanical energy. The characteristics of single-phase motors are as follows:
- Shaft power of less than 3 kW is used.
- Their circuit has two wires through which the current circulates.
- They have a power of 10 hp.
The operation of a single-phase motor is the same as that of a three-phase motor. This is why they are based on the principle of attraction and repulsion between the magnet and the core of the electric current.
The 220v single-phase motor
Single-phase 220 volt AC motors are used for pumping water from wells. On the other hand, a more common application in our day-to-day life is air conditioning.
Parts of single-phase motors
The parts of a single-phase motor are:
- Stator → is the fixed part of the motor, which has a core made of sheet steel.
- Rotor → is the part of the motor which is located on metal rods that have the function of conducting electricity.
- Escutcheon → serves as a support for the rotor.
- Casing → is the part that protects the internal elements of the motor.
- Rotating interface → part of the motor that allows the voltage to circulate.
Single-phase induction motor is a type of motor with a version of synchronous motors with a squirrel-cage rotor. This type of motor has 2 magnetic fields rotating in opposite directions. In addition, they have their poles in a protruding shapes. There are different types of induction motors:
Split-phase induction motor
Capacitor-start induction motor
Capacitor-starting and capacitor-operated induction motor
Shaded-pole induction motor
Single-phase motor types:
-Starting phase = in this phase, we find the auxiliary winding and the starting winding. The auxiliary winding is necessary to start the motor. However, the starting winding is only necessary at the moment of starting.
-Split phase with capacitor starting = for this purpose a capacitor is connected to the starting winding of the previous phase.
-Short-circuited loop phase = in this phase there can be a change in the position of the rotor inside the stator.
Where can we find them?
Single-phase motors can be used for non-industrial applications such as in homes or offices; or they can also be found in drilling machines, mixers, or compressors.