Magnetic separation methods

Los métodos de separación magnética son unos métodos que se empezó a usar durante la segunda guerra mundial para la chatarra. Más tarde en 1970 se introdujeron 3 formas de separación: los imanes elevados, el tambor y las poleas magnéticas.

Magnet separation or also known as magnetization is a method used to separate substances where one element of the two combining substances of the heterogeneous mixture possesses magnetic properties.

Magnetic separation of heterogeneous mixtures by magnetization uses the magnetic susceptibility of one of the magnetic components. This technique consists of attracting magnetic materials, which have ferromagnetic components, with the help of magnetism and a magnet on the mixture, in this way the magnet will attract the metallic particles and separate them from the non-metallic component.

Depending on the magnetic susceptibility, minerals can be paramagnetic, ferromagnetic, or diamagnetic.

Magnetic separation has two applications: the removal of iron particles from a mixture and the separation of magnetic elements from non-magnetic elements (homogeneous mixture). To use this separation method, the homogeneous mixture must have the following characteristic: One of the components must have integrated magnetic properties.

Factors in the separation of magnetic substances

Magnetic separation depends on 3 factors:

1. Magnetic force → is reflected in the number of gausses.

2. Gravitational force this force refers to the distance between the centers of gravity, of the particles.

3. Forces of attraction this force is what we see when we bring the magnet closer to the mixture.

Magnetic separation uses the magnetic properties of minerals, which is why depending on the type of minerals we want to separate, we must use a magnet with more or less Gauss:

- 500 - 5,000 strongly magnetic (magnetite).

- 5.000 - 10.000 moderately magnetic (garnet).

- 10,000 - 18,000 weakly magnetic (hematite).

- 18,000 - 23,000 poorly magnetic (bornite).

Applications of magnetic separators

Magnetic separators can be used in various applications such as iron blending, iron ores, scrap recycling, conveyor belts, water cleaning...

Magnetic separation can be found in various industries such as:

- Recycling industry we can find them in the recycling process to classify objects according to the material.

- Food industry → they are used to obtain quality products free of impurities.

- Mining and quarrying industries where are used for the extraction of iron.

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