What are electromagnetic waves?

Electromagnetic waves are waves that we cannot see but are composed of electromagnetic energy. Since the forces of this energy or electric and magnetic fields change both temporally and spatially, they are known as waves.

But how are these electromagnetic waves formed? A dipole can be used to change the direction of the current flow and the force. When the force on the dipole is at its highest point, a magnetic field is created around it. This magnetic field has the same direction as the current flow.

Within one oscillation, the current flow drops completely to zero twice, which means that the charge carriers within the dipole accumulate at the respective ends and the electric field lines move from the positive to the negative end.

If the dipole is reversed, the electric field weakens and the magnetic field increases. This means that alternating magnetic and electrical vibrations are produced, sometimes creating an alternating electromagnetic field. In addition, this alternating electromagnetic field can even be separated from its dipole, which means that it spreads at the speed of light. This is where the electromagnetic wave appears.

There are different types of electromagnetic waves: radio waves, microwaves, X-rays, mobile phone radiation, even light. These can be described with characteristics very similar to the waves in water as:

  • Wave length

  • Period: the time interval between one wave and the next.

  • Reflection: electromagnetic waves can be reflected by surfaces.

  • Refraction: it is said that an electromagneticwave breaks when it passes from one medium to another, at this moment the refraction is produced.

  • Diffraction: If waves hit an obstacle while spreading out, they continue, this is called wave diffraction.

  • Interference: two different electromagnetic waves can cross and interfere with each other.

Of course, it is also possible to calculate these waves mathematically. Maxwell's equations are used for this, which show us how the varying electronic and magnetic fields are related to each other.

If you need more information on this topic or have any questions, you can contact our specialized staff at any time.

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